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Methods have been devised to modify the yield strength, ductility, and toughness of both crystalline and amorphous materials. These strengthening mechanisms give engineers the ability to tailor the mechanical properties of materials to suit a variety of different applications. For example, the favorable properties of steel result from interstitial incorporation of carbon into the iron lattice. Brass, a binary alloy of copper and zinc, has superior mechanical properties compared to its constituent metals due to solution strengthening. Work hardening (such as beating a red-hot piece of metal on anvil) has also been used for centuries by blacksmiths to introduce dislocations into materials, increasing their yield strengths.
What is Strengthening?
Plastic deformation occurs when large numbers of dislocations move and multiply so as to result in macroscopic deformation. In other words, it is the movement of dislocations in the material which allows for deformation. If we want to enhance a material’s mechanical properties (i.e. increase the yield and tensile strength), we simply need to introduce a mechanism which prohibits the mobility of these dislocations. Whatever the mechanism may be, (work hardening, grain size reduction, etc) they all hinder dislocation motion and render the material stronger than previously.
The stress required to cause dislocation motion is orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical stress required to shift an entire plane of atoms, so this mode of stress relief is energetically favorable. Hence, the hardness and strength (both yield and tensile) critically depend on the ease with which dislocations move. Pinning points, or locations in the crystal that oppose the motion of dislocations, can be introduced into the lattice to reduce dislocation mobility, thereby increasing mechanical strength. Dislocations may be pinned due to stress field interactions with other dislocations and solute particles, or physical barriers from grain boundaries and second phase precipitates. There are four main strengthening mechanisms for metals, however the key concept to remember about strengthening of metallic materials is that it is all about preventing dislocation motion and propagation; you are making it energetically unfavorable for the dislocation to move or propagate. For a material that has been strengthened, by some processing method, the amount of force required to start irreversible (plastic) deformation is greater than it was for the original material.
In amorphous materials such as polymers, amorphous ceramics (glass), and amorphous metals, the lack of long range order leads to yielding via mechanisms such as brittle fracture, crazing, and shear band formation. In these systems, strengthening mechanisms do not involve dislocations, but rather consist of modifications to the chemical structure and processing of the constituent material.
Unfortunately, strength of materials cannot infinitely increase. Each of the mechanisms elaborated below involves some trade off by which other material properties are compromised in the process of strengthening.
Strengthening Mechanisms in Metals
Main article: Work hardening
The primary species responsible for work hardening are dislocations. Dislocations interact with each other by generating stress fields in the material. The interaction between the stress fields of dislocations can impede dislocation motion by repulsive or attractive interactions. Additionally, if two dislocations cross, dislocation line entanglement occurs, causing the formation of a jog which opposes dislocation motion. These entanglements and jogs act as pinning points, which oppose dislocation motion. As both of these processes are more likely to occur when more dislocations are present, there is a correlation between dislocation density and yield strength,
where G is the shear modulus, b is the Burgers vector, and is the dislocation density.
Increasing the dislocation density increases the yield strength which results in a higher shear stress required to move the dislocations. This process is easily observed while working a material. Theoretically, the strength of a material with no dislocations will be extremely high (?=G/2) because plastic deformation would require the breaking of many bonds simultaneously. However, at moderate dislocation density values of around 107-109 dislocations/m2, the material will exhibit a…(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about antique mirror glass, heat reflective glass, . The Flashing Margarita glass, flashing margarita glass, flashing cocktail glass products should be show more here!