Freshwater aquarium

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For other uses, see Aquarium (disambiguation).
A freshwater aquarium is a receptacle that holds one or more freshwater aquatic organisms for decorative, pet-keeping, or research purposes. Modern aquariums are most often made from transparent glass or acrylic glass. Typical inhabitants include fish, plants, amphibians, and invertebrates, such as snails and crustaceans.

Tropical freshwater aquarium
Freshwater fish may be either coldwater or tropical species. Although freshwater aquariums can be set up as community tanks, coldwater and tropical fish are generally not mixed due to incompatibilities in temperature requirements. Coldwater aquariums house goldfish and other species that do not require a heating apparatus. Warmer temperatures would actually increase their metabolism and shorten their lifespan. For a tropical fish tank, maintaining a warm environmental temperature ranging between 75 to 80 (24 to 27 ) enables the fish to thrive.
Aquariums may be decorated with sand or gravel, live or plastic plants, driftwood, rocks, and a variety of commercially made plastic sculptures. The smallest aquariums are fish bowls, but these are not recommended for most fish as they are generally too small.
The earliest known aquariums were artificial fish ponds constructed by the ancient Sumerians over 4500 years ago. The ancient Assyrians, Egyptians, and Romans also kept fish in ponds for food and entertainment purposes. The ancient Chinese were the first culture to breed fish with any degree of success. They raised carp for food around 2000 B.C., and developed ornamental goldfish by selective breeding. Goldfish were introduced to Europe during the 1700s.
In the later 1700s, widespread public interest in the study of nature was awakening, and fish were kept in glass jars, porcelain containers, wooden tubs, and small artificial ponds. It was during this time that zoologist and botanist, Johann Matthaeus Bechstein, kept a large number of fishes and amphibians and laid down the foundation for aquarium and terrarium science. The concepts of the proper aquarium and terrarium were developed later by Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward in 1829.
During the 1800s the idea of the “balanced aquarium” was developed. This approach was an attempt to mimic a balanced ecosystem in nature. According to this method, fish waste could be consumed by plants, and plants along with the air surface of the water could supply oxygen for the fish. In 1869, the first tropical fish (the Paradise Fish) was imported from Asia. In these days, tropical tanks were kept warm by an open flame. Because early filters were noisy and expensive, fishkeeping was a hobby reserved for wealthy, scientifically inclined individuals.

Fancy goldfish aquarium
In 1878, Rear-Admiral Daniel Ammon brought the first tropical fish from the Far East to the United States which lead to a decline in the popularity of goldfish. In the early 1900s, aeration, as well as particulate and charcoal filtration was introduced. The undergravel filter was introduced in the 1950s. By this time, the old idea of the balanced aquarium was viewed as unattainable and unnecessary by many people in the aquarium hobby, but it made a comeback at the end of the 20th Century with the rising popularity of the planted tank.
Today fishkeeping has become a popular hobby that almost anyone can do. Aquarium fish are both wild-caught and bred in Asia and Florida. Captive-bred species are inexpensive and widely available, and are less likely to be infected with diseases or parasites. Unfortunately, successive generations of inbred fish frequently have less color and sport smaller fins than their wild counterparts.
A typical household freshwater aquarium set-up, apart from its aquatic tenants, consists of furnishings such as a gravel substrate, live or plastic plants, rocks, driftwood, a backcloth or background, and other decorations. Other equipment includes a canopy or hood as an aquarium cover, an aquarium stand or base, lighting accessories, a heater, a thermometer, air pumps, filtration apparatus, airstones, fish food, a fish net, water conditioner, water quality testing kits, a siphon hose or gravel cleaner, and a bucket for water changes.
Surface area and height are important in the set-up and maintenance of a living biotope. The surface area contributes to providing superior in-tank oxygenation and it also facilitates the creation of attractive aquatic themes. Freshwater environments benefit more from short and wide aquariums, due to the larger surface area they present to the air; this allows more oxygen to dissolve in the water, and the more oxygen there is, the more fish you can keep. In general, a…(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about wood products crafts, wool felt crafts, . The Gifts And Crafts products should be show more here!

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Power Macintosh G3 (Blue & White)

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Power Macintosh G3(Blue & White)
The Blue & White Power Macintosh G3.
Apple Computer Inc.
Desktop (Minitower)
Release date
January, 1999
August, 1999
PowerPC G3,300 450MHz

An open Power Macintosh G3 case, showing the logic board placement on the hinged door.
The Power Macintosh G3 series (commonly known as the “Blue and White G3”, or sometimes just the “B&W G3” to distinguish it from the original Power Macintosh G3) was a series of personal computers designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer Inc. as part of their Power Macintosh line. It was introduced in January 1999, succeeding the original “beige” Power Macintosh G3, with which it shared the name and processor architecture but little else; it was discontinued in favor of the Power Mac G4 line in August 1999.
The Blue & White G3 used a modified version of the memory/PCI controller, the Motorola MPC106 (codenamed “Grackle”); it used the MPC106 v4. The I/O “Heathrow” had been replaced by “Paddington” (adding 100 Mbit Ethernet and power save features), the audio chip “Screamer” (on the beige G3’s “Personality Card”) had been replaced by “Burgundy”, and other controllers for Firewire (Texas Instruments PCI-Lynx), for USB etc. were added.
Note that “Paddington” only handles the slow IDE bus for CD/DVD and ZIP, in fact it provides up to 16.6 MB/s like its predecessor “Heathrow”. The fast IDE bus for the hard disks is an extra chip and provides up to 33 MB/s; this one is the problem in the Rev 1 blue/white G3s.
Though still based on the PowerPC G3 architecture, the G3 B&W was a totally new design. The first new Power Mac model after the release of the iMac, it used a novel enclosure with the logic board on the folding “door”, which swung down onto the desk for easy access (a design that was also used on all Power Mac G4 models except for the Cube). It also introduced the New World ROM to the Power Macintosh line.
The faster models (not the 300 MHz model) used the new copper-based PowerPC G3 CPUs made by IBM, which used about 25% of the power of the Motorola versions clock for clock. The B&W line ranged from 300 to 450MHz. Despite its 100MHz system bus and PC100 SDRAM, the 300MHz B&W G3 performed worse than its 300MHz Beige predecessor, because it had only 512KB L2 cache, half of what the 300MHz Beige had. The logic board had four PCI slots: three 64-bit 33MHz slots, and one 32-bit 66MHz slot dedicated for the graphics card, an ATI Rage 128 with 16MB SGRAM. Four 100MHz RAM slots accepted PC100 SDRAM modules, allowing the installation of up to 1GB of RAM with the use of 256MB DIMMs. The onboard ATA was upgraded to Ultra ATA/33 (in fact an extra UDMA-33 controller was added, see above), but SCSI was no longer present, having been replaced by two FireWire ports, a new standard (IEEE1394) running at 400Mbit/s (50MB/s) faster in theory than even the ATA/33 (33MB/s) hard drive controller. The serial ports were gone, too, having given way to two USB 1.1 ports (12Mbit/s), as implemented already in the iMac. The ADB port remained, as did the option for an internal modem. Also gone was the internal floppy disk drive. 100BASE-TX Ethernet was now standard, and audio was moved back to the logic board. A Zip Drive remained an option, and some configurations included a DVD-ROM drive and a DVD-Video decoder daughtercard for the graphics card, allowing hardware-assisted DVD video playback.
The blue-and-white Power Macintosh G3 was the first Power Mac with the “New World” architecture which only contained a small (approximately 1MB) boot ROM. When booting the Mac OS the Mac OS Toolbox and any other ROM patches installed would be loaded into ram (the former Beige G3 however was the first Mac with this ROM-in-RAM capability). Initially, many buyers chose to buy the older “Platinum” G3s instead, in order to maintain compatibility with existing peripherals.
The blue and white G3’s case design was widely praised at the time for being easy to open up and work on. It had a door on the side that hinged down by pulling a latch at the top. No components needed to be removed or unplugged to open the case, and in fact it could be done with the computer running. The logic board was positioned in the door, providing easy access to all components. The hard drive(s) were mounted in a bracket affixed with one screw on the floor of the case. There was room for four internal hard drives. Removable drives were in a more conventional position at the top of the case.

The inside of the Power Mac G3
Early blue and white G3s (“Revision 1” units) had IDE controller problems related to the ATA/33 hard drive controller that made it impossible to connect two hard drives and prevented the use of newer drives. Using newer ATA drives in those units resulted in data transmission…(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about , . The Emergency Wind-up Flashlight(SB-3049),LED Flashlight,LED torch products should be show more here!

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Fishing in the North Sea

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The North Sea
Fishing in the North Sea is concentrated in the southern part of the coastal waters. The main method of fishing is trawling.
Annual catches grew each year until the 1980s, when a high point of more than 3 million metric tons (3.3millionS/T) was reached. Since then, the numbers have fallen back to around 2.3 million tons (2.5millionS/T) annually with considerable differences between years. Besides the fish caught, it is estimated that 150,000metrictons (165,000S/T) of unmarketable by-catch are caught and around 85,000metrictons (94,000S/T) of dead and injured invertebrates.
Of the caught fish, about half are used for the production of fish oil and fish meal.
Sturgeon, shad, rays, skates and salmon among other species were common in the North Sea into the 20th century, when numbers declined due to overfishing.
Other factors like the introduction of non-indigenous species, industrial and agricultural pollution, trawling and dredging, human-induced eutrophication, construction on coastal breeding and feeding grounds, sand and gravel extraction, offshore construction, and heavy shipping traffic have also contributed to the decline.

The underside and mouth of a sturgeon
The OSPAR commission manages the OSPAR convention to counteract the harmful effects of human activity on wildlife in the North Sea, preserve endangered species, and provide environmental protection. All North Sea border states are signatories of the MARPOL 73/78 Accords which preserves the marine environment by preventing pollution from ships. Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands also have a trilateral agreement for the protection of the Wadden Sea, or mudflats, which run along the coasts of the three countries on the southern edge of the North Sea.
At the end of the 19th century large quantities of herring were produced in Scotland. Today mainly mackerel, Atlantic cod, whiting, coalfish, European plaice, and sole are caught. In addition, common shrimp, lobster, and crab, along with a variety of shellfish are harvested.

Trends in landings of Cod, Haddock, Whiting and Norway Pout from the North Sea (1961-2004).
In recent decades, overfishing has left many fisheries unproductive, disturbing the marine food chain dynamics and costing jobs in the fishing industry. Herring, cod and plaice fisheries may soon face the same plight as mackerel fishing which ceased in the 1970s due to overfishing. Since the 1960s, various regulations have attempted to protect the stocks of fish such as limited fishing times and limited numbers of fishing boats, among other regulations. However, these rules were never systematically enforced and did not bring much relief. Since then, the United Kingdom and Denmark, two important fishing nations, became members of the EU, and have attempted, with the help of the Common Fisheries Policy, to bring the problem under control.
Norway, not a member of the EU, has also reached an agreement with the European Community concerning fishing policy. Regional advisory committees meet with the EU to help enforce policy.
In addition to threats due to food-chain disturbances, non-target species often wind up as victims of intense fishing. Sea turtles, dolphins, harbour porpoises, rays, and dozens of fish species are killed or injured by trawlers nets and beams. Denmark’s trawler fishing alone accounts for the deaths of 5,000 porpoises a year. Trawling can also have a destructive effect on seabed habitats as the trawler beams drag along the floor can uproot plants and destroy reefs.
Fish caught in the North Sea in metric tons
United Kingdom
Soviet Union / Russia
Faroe Islands
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Flue gas stack

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Flue gas stack at GRES-1 Power Station in Ekibastusz, Kazakhstan
A flue gas stack is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called flue gases are exhausted to the outside air. Flue gases are produced when coal, oil, natural gas, wood or any other fuel is combusted in an industrial furnace, a power plant’s steam-generating boiler, or other large combustion device. Flue gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake combustion air. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall, up to 400 meters (1300 feet) or more, so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater area and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by governmental environmental policy and environmental regulation.
When the flue gases are exhausted from stoves, ovens, fireplaces, or other small sources within residential abodes, restaurants, hotels, or other public buildings and small commercial enterprises, their flue gas stacks are referred to as chimneys.
The first industrial chimneys were built in the mid-17th century when it was first understood how they could improve the combustion of a furnace by increasing the draft (draught) of air into the combustion zone. As such, they played an important part in the development of reverberatory furnaces and a coal-based metallurgical industry, one of the key sectors of the early Industrial Revolution. Most 18th century industrial chimneys (now commonly referred to as flue gas stacks) were built into the walls of the furnace much like a domestic chimney. The first free-standing industrial chimneys were probably those erected at the end of the long condensing flues associated with smelting lead.
The powerful association between industrial chimneys and the characteristic smoke-filled landscapes of the industrial revolution was due to the universal application of the steam engine for most manufacturing processes. The chimney is part of a steam-generating boiler, and its evolution is closely linked to increases in the power of the steam engine. The chimneys of Thomas Newcomen steam engine were incorporated into the walls of the engine house. The taller, free-standing industrial chimneys that appeared in the early 19th century were related to the changes in boiler design associated with James Watt “double-powered” engines, and they continued to grow in stature throughout the Victorian period. Decorative embellishments are a feature of many industrial chimneys from the 1860s, with over-sailing caps and patterned brickwork.
The invention of fan-assisted forced draft (draught) in the early 20th century removed the industrial chimney’s original function, that of drawing air into the steam-generating boilers or other furnaces. With the replacement of the steam engine as a prime mover, first by diesel engines and then by electric motors, the early industrial chimneys began to disappear from the industrial landscape. Building materials changed from stone and brick to steel and later reinforced concrete, and the height of the industrial chimney was determined by the need to disperse combustion flue gases to comply with governmental air pollution control regulations.
Flue gas stack draft (or draught)

The stack effect in chimneys: the gauges represent absolute air pressure and the airflow is indicated with light grey arrows. The gauge dials move clockwise with increasing pressure.
Main article: Stack effect
The combustion flue gases inside the flue gas stacks are much hotter than the ambient outside air and therefore less dense than the ambient air. That causes the bottom of the vertical column of hot flue gas to have a lower pressure than the pressure at the bottom of a corresponding column of outside air. That higher pressure outside the chimney is the driving force that moves the required combustion air into the combustion zone and also moves the flue gas up and out of the chimney. That movement or flow of combustion air and flue gas is called “natural draft (or draught)”, “natural ventilation”, “chimney effect”, or “stack effect”. The taller the stack, the more draft (or draught) is created.
The equation below provides an approximation of the pressure difference, ?P, (between the bottom and the top of the flue gas stack) that is created by the draft:

= available pressure difference, in Pa
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Indian Creek Designs BKO

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The Indian Creek Designs (ICD) logo
11 inches
Not Specified
Rate of fire
18 BPS
Retail Price
The Indian Creek Designs BKO is part of the B2K (Bushmaster 2000) series. The main difference between it and the Bushmaster series of markers is rather than being fully pneumatic, the ram housing on the BKO consists of a spring return ram. The BKO was discontinued in 2004, it was made by Indian Creek Designs, located in Idaho. They also produce popular paintball markers such as the ProMaster, Freestyle and Bushmaster.
The 2004 BKO was an electronic solenoid actuated computer controlled paintball marker. The major components of the BKO were machined from solid, aircraft-grade aluminum, and then hard anodized . The BKO is reputed to stand for Bushmaster Knock-Off,because it uses a different theory of operation. All internal parts, wear and contact surfaces were heat treated or hard anodized. The BKO used a single standard 9-volt battery for operation. The circuitry consisted of a microprocessor based digital controller. The BKO did not require tools to field-strip. Removing the field-strip link-pin of the bolt enabled the removal of the entire bolt assembly. The BKO offers low-pressure operation. The main operating pressure is 200-300 PSI which is set by watching the gauge on the primary (input) regulator while making adjustments. The secondary pressure is factory preset and regulated to 85-95 PSI. Gas usage is controlled through these 2 internal regulators. The BKO included a removable 11″ step-bore and ported barrel. The stock BKO did not come with PDS (eyes) but they were available for install by ICD directly or other companies such as Vaporworks.
The BKO was designed to use nitrogen gas or a compressed air system. The company urged users to avoid the use of CO2, although it was still possible to use it as a propellant. The reason for this was that CO2 is an industrial grade gas and may contain dirt and rust, which can in turn damage the marker. CO2 can be used with anti-siphon systems and filters.
Adjustable regulator compressed air systems
The input pressure from the compressed air system should be regulated down to 350-500 PSI output pressure.
Fixed output regulated compressed air systems
Fixed output regulated tanks (preset) will work just fine with the BKO, however it will not perform as well as an adjustable regulated tank. If your compressed air system does not have an output pressure gauge on its regulator, it is not recommended for usage.
Firing rate
Since the BKO was capable of reaching firing rates over 15 BPS, it operates best when used with a force-fed hopper like: Vlocity, Halo, Empire B, or Pulse. Because of its design, the BKO is limited in its rate of fire. Without extensive modification, the BKO is mechanically capped at 18 BPS.
The BKO was with two regulators to control air pressure. The main one, the High Pressure Regulator (HPR), is meant to be set at around 250-300 PSI. This regulator is used to provide air to the Low Pressure Regulator (LPR) and for the air that propels the paintball out of the barrel. The LPR was used to provide the solenoid with air that is then diverted to the ram. To preserve the solenoid and the rest of the low pressure system, the LPR was designed to shut down if it encounters an input greater than 400 PSI. This regulator was usually set by increasing it until a leak was heard from the back of the marker, which was the solenoid bleeding off the air at around 120 PSI, and then turning it 1/4 turn out. Either the HPR or the LPR was used to adjust velocity.
Parts diagram

Stock Ram

Stock 2002 LPR
Bko timeline and versions
This time line was made by Darryl Hadfield (ICD-owners). This is a time line with a detailed descriptions of the various bko generation with specifics to the marker.

2002 bko
The first BKO was produced in the second half of 2002. ICD has not released a formal statement about it, but it is widely rumored that the BKO actually stood for, ushmaster Knock-Off, as the marker was intended to capture the lower-end of the electro-pneumatic market, as well as compete against the massive market of seartripper markers…(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about SD Reader USB, touh screen monitor, . The Flex RGB Color Light Bar products should be show more here!

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Ludwig Kakumei

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(Redirected from Ludwig Revolution)
Ludwig Revolution
?????????(R?dovihhi Kakumei)
Horror, romance
Kaori Yuki
Other publishers:
Carlsen Comics Planet Manga Tonkam Daiwon C.I.
Hana to Yume BetsuHana
Original run
1999 2007
Anime and Manga Portal
Ludwig Revolution (????????? ,R?dovihhi Kakumei?) is a gothic horror sh?jo manga by Kaori Yuki. The story tells about Prince Ludwig who is ordered by his father to find himself a wife more suitable than the women he often brings into the castle. Along with his servant Wilhelm, they travel across the land in search of fair maidens from classic stories in hopes of finding Ludwig a wife.
Volume 1
Chapter 1: Snow White
Blanche is a beautiful princess with skin white as snow, lips red as a rose and more beautiful than her mother. While she seems innocent on the outside, she is actually a conniving whore who seduces anyone to gain more power. Her mother, the queen, tries to have her killed, but she escapes to the cottage of the seven dwarves. After various attempts to kill Blanche prove unsuccessful, she gives her a poisoned apple. Blanche apparently dies, and is discovered by Ludwig, who spirits her corpse back to his kingdom. An accident revives Blanche and they are arranged to be married. Blanche seduces Ludwig’s father, the king, and takes revenge against her mother. Ludwig confronts her, and Blanche dies in an attempt to kill him.
Chapter 2: Little Red Riding Hood
Lisette is a childhood friend of Will and resents Ludwig for his harsh treatment of him. One day, Lisette’s parents send her to her grandmother’s house in the forest to deliver food to her. Following the lead of an apparently alterred sign, she arrives at the burned remains of a cottage in the darkest parts of the forest. A wolf speaks to her from the trees and tells her that her parents have sacrificed both her and her grandmother to him in exchange for bags of gold. Lisette flees the forest and returns home to find that, indeed, her parents do suddenly have the bags of gold. She murders them with an axe, and is forced to flee the country, swearing vengeance on Ludwig. It is later revealed that Ludwig was the one who orchestrated the charade, using a taxidermy wolf from the castle.
Chapter 3: Sleeping Beauty
Ludwig journeys to a land where a princess sleeps and has been sleeping for over a hundred years. On the way there, Ludwig finds a pocketwatch in a field. The townspeople try to turn him away from the castle, saying that no one has ever returned alive from there. That night, Ludwig dreams of the field from before with a lovely girl playing in it. The two antagonize each other, until the girl, who reveals her name to be Idike, banishes Ludwig from the dream. The next day, Ludwig proceeds to the castle, where the witch who cursed the princess to sleep tries to warn him away. It is revealed that Idike is actually the princess Friederike asleep in the castle. Ludwig convinces her to let go of her sorrow and awaken in the real world, but their happiness together is short-lived, as Idike dies of old age as soon as she wakes.
Chapter 4: Bluebeard
Ludwig finds himself infatuated with a young noble’s beautiful daughter(‘s breasts), but discovers she is already engaged to another noble by the name of Bluebeard to be his seventh bride. Ludwig decides to steal the girl away from Bluebeard, but is instead taken in as his new bride. Bluebeard seems not to notice his fiance is suddenly a man, taking Ludwig’s beautiful looks to be those of a ‘beautiful queen’. Ludwig discovers that Bluebeard’s beard is actually fake, and that Bluebeard adopt a much harsher persona when wearing the beard as opposed to his weaker demeanor without it. Bluebeard gives Ludwig just one rule: do not open the door to the inner-most room of the castle. Despite this, Bluebeard promts Ludwig to open the door on several occasions until Ludwig finally does. It is revealed that Bluebeard killed and stuffed all of his previous wives for telling him to stop hiding behind his beard. Ludwig helps him find closure, but he is killed in a failed attempt to assassinate Ludwig.
Volume 2
Chapter 5: Rapunzel
A beautiful girl named Rapunzel, whose hair was never cut, was taken away by a fairy at birth since her father had agreed to it, if he could have rapunzel (lettuce) for his pregnant wife to eat. Rapunzel is mean and foul-mouthed, and doesn’t seem to be very same Rapunzel in the fairy tale.
Chapter 6: Maid Maleen
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Sebastian Horsley

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Sebastian Horsley and his mother, at a retrospective of his work at Spectrum London gallery, London, 2007.
Sebastian Horsley (born 1962) is a London writer and artist best known for having undergone a voluntary crucifixion. Horsley’s in-your-face writings often revolve around his dysfunctional family, his drug addictions, sex, and his reliance on prostitutes.
Horsley is the elder son of Nicholas Horsley, the millionaire chairman of Northern Foods, which had been founded by Nicholas’s father. His mother, the former Valerie Edwards, was a Welsh typist. He has an elder sister, Ashley. After his parents’ divorce, Horsley’s father married Sabitha Sarkar (married 1975-1987) and Alwyne Law (married 1998). His mother did not remarry but later became known as Valerie Walmsley-Hunter.
Both of his parents were alcoholics and indulged in numerous affairs before divorcing in 1975. As Horsley wrote in his memoirs, “Clearly everyone in my life who should have been vertical was horizontal”. In an interview she gave to the Sunday Times, Horsley’s mother admits that her son’s childhood was profoundly difficult, saying, “I don’t think Nicholas ever went to bed sober and I was always in a fog. Sebastian and my other two children were accidents and, though it seems shocking to admit, I drank all the way through my pregnancies.” Still, she added, “I tried not to be drunk when the kids came home from school …”
In 1983, Horsley married Evlynn (n Evelynn [sic] Anne) Smith, the daughter of a Scottish painter and decorator; they separated in 1990. Half of the art and furniture-design company Precious McBane, she died of an aneurysm at age 40.
Art and writing
In August 2000 Horsley traveled to the Philippines to experience a crucifixion, in order to prepare for a series of paintings on the topic. Refusing pain killers, he was nailed to a cross and passed out. The foot rest broke and he fell off. A film and photos of the event, as well as his subsequent paintings of crosses, were exhibited in London in 2002.
In an editorial article in The Observer in 2004, he described his preference for sex with prostitutes, writing “What I hate with women generally is the intimacy, the invasion of my innermost space, the slow strangulation of my art.” He also stated that he himself had worked as a prostitute for a while. He argued that prostitution should not be legalized, as that would take away part of its thrill.
Horsley ran a monthly column in the Erotic Review from 1998 to 2004. In early 2006, Horsley together with Marion McBride began to run a weekly sex advice column in The Observer. Four months later, after graphic discussions of oral and anal sex had led to numerous complaints from readers, the column was discontinued.
Horsley, a self-described dandy, praised his chosen home of Soho in an article in 2006.
In September 2007, the Spectrum London gallery staged Hookers, Dealers, Tailors, a retrospective by Horsley. The show documented his diving in Australian shark-infested water and copiously ingesting deadly drugs.
His memoir, Dandy in the Underworld (ISBN 1841157546), named after the T.Rex album of same name (Horsley counts Marc Bolan as one of his idols) was published in the UK by Sceptre in September 2007 and in the USA in March 2008 from Harper Perennial. In it, he claims to have had an affair with the Scottish gangster-turned-artist Jimmy Boyle. Horsley further stated that his late wife, Evlynn, also had an affair with Boyle, who served as best man at the couple’s wedding, according to Horsley’s mother.
U.S. entry denied
Horsley was refused entry into the United States March 19, 2008, after arriving at Newark Airport for a book tour. Customs denied his entry claiming issues of moral turpitude. “…travelers who have been convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude (which includes controlled-substance violations) or admit to previously having a drug addiction are not admissible…” said customs spokeswoman, Lucille Cirillo. After eight hours of questioning, he was placed on a plane and sent back to London. Horsley had told the Associated Press that he had prepared for the visit; his one concession: removing his nail polish.
^ I said yes to marriage the first time we met by Valerie Walmsley-Hunter, The Guardian, December 10, 2005, accessed October 19, 2007
^ a b c Relative Values: Sebastian Horsley and his mother, Valerie, interviews by Ria Higgins, Sunday Times, September 9, 2007, accessed October 19, 2007
^ Obituary: Evlynn Smith, Daily Telegraph, last updated April 29, 2003, accessed October 19. 2007
^ The agony and the ecstasy. The Observer, 26 May 2002
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Gribaumont metro station

I want to introduct something about Steel Bicycle Rack. Steel Bicycle Rack Net Weight2kg Packing Color box, 8 sets per master carton Meas. 74X52X34cm G/N Weight 17/16kg Qty/container 1680pcs per 1×20′ Container 3360pcs per 1×40′ Container 3912pcs per 1×40′ High Container Steel Bicycle Rack mo
Empire Wrestling Federation
Southern California
Bill Anderson and Jesse Hernandez
Jesse Hernandez
The Empire Wrestling Federation (EWF) is an independent wrestling promotion based in San Bernardino, California. It is owned and operated by Jesse Lizarraga. The EWF is also tied to Hernandez’s wrestling school, The School Of Hard Knocks. The EWF is the longest running promotion in Southern California, running continuously from 1996. The EWF is also an affiliate of the National Wrestling Alliance.
EWF was founded in 1996 by Bill Anderson and Hernandez. it saw its first show in May 1996 at the Boys and Girls Club of San Bernardino as Bobby Bradley defeated Tom “Zuma” Howard to become the first EWF Heavyweight Champion. In 1999 Bill Anderson left the EWF and formed his own promotion and wrestling school, the International Wrestling Council in Riverside, California. In June 1996 a tribute to “Superstar” Billy Graham was held.
Several EWF wrestlers from the past have gone on to national fame, including Rico Constantino, Louie Spicolli, Frankie Kazarian, Christopher Daniels, Shelly Martinez and Melina Perez. In 1997 Chris Jericho and Lee Marshall of World Championship Wrestling (WCW) mentioned EWF on WCW broadcasts and Marshall attended a show in Hemet, California. Other pro wrestling stars have made appearance at EWF shows including Mando Guerrero, Peter Maivia, Ludvig Borga, The Honky Tonk Man, Tony Atlas and Tom Brandi. Many EWF wrestlers appear as jobbers on World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) broadcasts, and at the 1999 Royal Rumble the orderlies sent to apprehend Kane were performed by the EWF roster, including then owners Bill Anderson and Jesse Hernandez.
School of Hard Knocks
The EWF’s School of Hard Knocks has sent several wrestlers to the WWE, TNA, NWA, ROH and other prominent promotions across the globe including Melina (WWE), Rico Constantino (WWE), Frankie Kazarian (TNA, WWE), Awesome Kong (TNA, AJW), Rocky Romero (NWA, ROH, NJPW), Ricky Reyes (ROH), Alex Koslov (CMLL) and Shelly Martinez (WWE, TNA).
Current champions
Current champion(s):
Date Won:
Won From:
EWF Heavyweight Championship
Brandon Gatson
February 27, 2009
Black Metal
San Bernardino, California
EWF American Championship
Ryan Taylor
August 23, 2008
San Bernardino, California
EWF Tag Team Championship
The Young Bucks(Matt and Nick Jackson)
January 10, 2009
Famous For Fearless(TJ Perkins and Liger Rivera)
Covina, California
EWF Cruiserweight Championship
Jeremy Jaeger
August 22, 2008
Covina, California
Annual events
The Empire Wrestling Federation currently holds two annual events, the Great Goliath Memorial Battle Royal and the Inland Title Series. The Great Goliath Memorial Battle Royal, held in honor of the wrestler who trained Jesse Hernandez, the EWF’s owner and promoter, has been held during the EWF’s Anniversary Show in May since 2006. The winner is awarded a trophy or plaque and is granted a shot at the EWF Heavyweight Championship.
Great Goliath Battle Royal
Won By:
Year Won:
Cincinnati Red
Covina, CA
Gave the trophy to Great Goliath’s daughter, Paloma, and forfeited his right to a title match.
Dan “The Man” Kobrick
Covina, CA
Used his title shot at The Covina Classic, losing to then champion, Joey Harder.
Ryan Taylor
Covina, CA
Used his title shot at The Covina Classic, losing to then champion, Scorpio Sky.
The Inland Title Series is a round robin style tournament, held at the end of the year. The winner of the ITS is granted a shot at the EWF Heavyweight Championship.
Inland Title Series
Matt Jackson
Finished tied for 1st. Chose to stay tied and compete for the EWF Tag Title
Nick Jackson
Finished tied for 1st. Chose to stay tied and compete for the EWF Tag Title
Johnny Paradise
“Top Shelf” Jeremy Jaeger
Brandon “Nitro” Gatson
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Electric forklifts: clean and quiet for indoor use

An Electric Fork Lift is a kind of industrial truck employed to transport heavy materials. These are also known as the Electric Forklift Trucks, a stacker forklift or truck, side loader or a trailer loader as well.  

Within a small span of time the Electric Fork Lift has gained immense popularity in the industries where it is the most helpful instrument. It was developed in the year 1920 and since then the way it has been used in the heavy load industries is remarkable. Be it a large or a small scale industry that employ lifting and transporting heavy load, Electric Fork Lift acts as a savior.  

The basic components of Electric Forklift Trucks include Truck Frame, counterweight, cab, power source, overhead guard, tilt cylinder, carriage, mast and load back rest. Electric Forklift Trucks comes with many attachments like rotator, side shifter, pole attachment, fork positioned, Roll and Barrel Clamp Attachment, carton and multipurpose clamp attachment, slip sheet attachment, drum handler attachment, telescopic forks, man basket etc.  

Electric Fork Lift is really a boon for manufacturing companies, warehouses and the best part is that it can be used indoors owing to two main reasons. Firstly, the emission form Electric Fork Lift is zero and it is a very important facet for using it indoors. It’s very unfortunate that all the internal combustion models except for propane fueled lifts produce emission and hence can’t be used indoors. Even the propane fueled lifts need lots of ventilation which every industry cannot provide. Gas and diesel models too cannot be used indoors. In such a case for all those who had indoor usage, Electric Fork Lift has come up as a great relief. 

Secondly, the cost of the fuel is also a big factor, of which Electric Fork Lift is always at advantage. The cost per hour for a task that an owner of Electric Fork Lift or Electric Forklift Trucks has to pay is nothing as compared to the cost one has to pay for internal combustion models. This is the reason why even after high initial cost people prefer Electric Forklift Trucks. At the end of the day with little more investment at the time of purchasing they save lot of money that they would be paying lifelong. There is no doubt that an Electric Fork Lift costs as much as 20 to 40% more when compared to its IC counterpart but the above mentioned reason is making it more and more popular and sought after equipment.

it takes only 8 hours to charge your Electric Fork Lift and it needs to be cooled down for 8 hours prior to its use. These batteries employed in Electric Fork Lift are lead acid based and takes some time to get fully charged. But once the Electric Fork Lift is fully charged, the speed with which it works is outstanding. Even the option of having a variation in speed which is not possible with any other forklift is of immense use. 

The best way to buy an Electric Fork Lift is through a reputed dealer who would even help you out in maintaining your Electric Fork Lift, which will ensure a longer lifespan of the equipment.

The best way to buy an Electric Fork Lift is through a reputed dealer who would even help you out in maintaining your Electric Fork Lift, which will ensure a longer lifespan of the equipment.

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Electric Pallet Stacker: Perfect for heavy weight

Electric pallet stackers are nothing else but forklifts that are electrically driven motors employed for picking up of load, delivering and stacking the heavy goods into columns. Its design is such that it makes brilliant equipment for industries that deal in heavy weight goods. The Electric Pallet Stacker is quite in demand in such industries and be it a small entrepreneur, a new industry about to start of an already established big name in the heavy goods industry, no one can do without an Electric Pallet Stacker. 

Managing even empty pallets s is a huge task as they measure and weigh 100 x 122 cm and 20 to 40 kilograms respectively. It’s obvious from their huge size and certainly heavy weight that manually lifting and stacking them is no joke. Thus, Electric Pallet Stacker has almost come as a blessing in disguise for lifting, stacking and moving such heavy pallets s. 

Not to forget the loaded pallets s. One can load any weight on the Electric Pallet Stacker but it should not exceed 1500 kilograms in one go. If you have to exceed this weight limit as there is no other alternative, then you may do so but with the help of heavy duty stackers. 

Although there are many differences between the manual pallets stacker and its electric counterpart but the main difference lies in the method of transportation of these pallets from one place to another. Electro-hydraulic system is employed by both the types of stackers for lifting purpose and even the lowering of load is done through manual relief-valve mechanism, but the difference again lies in the fact that the Electric Pallet Stacker are not dragged by muscular power as in the case with its manual counterpart. Here it uses battery for doing the very task which eases out the entire process and makes it simple and fast. 

Definitely electric drive is one of the most integral features of Electric Pallet Stacker. But apart from the same, there are many additional features that one may have like safety brakes or forward and reverse gears with varying speed mechanism. All these additional features come with an additional cost definitely, but they make the task even more convenient. 

There is no doubt that the Electric Pallet Stacker is advantageous as compared to other forklifts as no waste disposal material is emitted by these and thus can be conveniently used indoors as well. Although they do have a higher price but the saving one has on fuel is indeed much better as compared to any other equipment owing to their self propelled power nature. 

These normally come in three types of design options which include counterweight stabilized forklifts, forkover pallet stackers and straddle legged forklifts. Each has its own properties, advantages and disadvantages. Depending upon your requirement and budget, you may select the one which suits you the most. 

Maintenance is one thing that you have to provide your Electric Pallet Stacker. Since these are more expensive than their manual counterparts, it becomes even more important to take care of your Electric Pallet Stacker.

Maintenance is one thing that you have to provide your Electric Pallet Stacker. Since these are more expensive than their manual counterparts, it becomes even more important to take care of your Electric Pallet Stacker.

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The advantageous Electric Pallet Truck

To move heavy material around even within an industry is a big problem that most of the heavy goods business owners face. But with the advancement of technology and innovative equipments, it has no longer remained a problem. In fact, there are two ways by which one can do the stacking, loading and moving the material. First is manually which is very cumbersome and painful owing involving a lot of physical labour. The second and more intelligent move is to employ an Electric Pallet Truck, which definitely is easier and time saving method by which loading, stacking and movement of heavy goods becomes so convenient. 

Stacking Up with almost no Efforts using Electric Pallet Truck 

Definitely the person who invented this nice piece of equipment has made the life of many people relieved. Its indeed a commendable instrument used for loading and stacking heavy materials and then transporting it. The best part about Electric Pallet Truck is that not only the loading and movement of the material has become easy but the stacking job which used to be very boring and energy consuming can be very easily done within no time at all. 

The greatest point of Electric Pallet Truck is that single equipment is strong enough to perform three tasks simultaneously and may be this is the reason why so many business owners of heavy good industries feel the need of employing Electric Pallet Truck a must. It has no doubt become an indispensable part of every industry by performing the basic but most crucial tasks. The popularity of Electric Pallet Truck is ever evolving which has shown ways to many companies that have started manufacturing the equipment itself. 

The Electric Pallet Truck is available in many models and make that suit every individualistic task’s requirement. It is very crucial to understand the requirement of your company and then select the model and make which fulfills all specifications and needs of the industry. Its recommended to purchase Electric Pallet Truck only from a reputed dealer who can offer you warrantee and good after sale services as well. Maintenance is a big aspect for any mechanical equipment and Electric Pallet Truck too requires some maintenance to keep moving smoothly. If you buy your Electric Pallet Truck form an authentic dealer, he will aid you in maintaining the machine as well. 

Operating the Controls 

The operating system of Electric Pallet Truck employs either 2 12-volt batteries or 1 24-volt battery. Either of the two above mentioned batteries serve perfectly with Electric Pallet Truck and when fully charged provides with minimum usage of 8 hours. The lowering and raising of pallets is a simple job using the finger tip button present on the machine. Even one can have immense variation in speed with the throttle and this speed variation can be captured in both forward and reverse gears. 

One can stand as well as sit while working on the Electric Pallet Truck and the comfort it provides by ensuring that you don’t have to do much except for pressing buttons is what makes the Electric Pallet Truck so advantageous.

One can stand as well as sit while working on the Electric Pallet Truck and the comfort it provides by ensuring that you don’t have to do much except for pressing buttons is what makes the Electric Pallet Truck so advantageous.

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How to Choose Used Truck Tires in Tampa, FL

New tires are expensive, especially for trucks. These days, we all need to make wise decisions for every purchase. We can’t just decide on the basis of what looks good with our vehicle. A lot of owners, therefore, choose to buy used truck tires, instead, in Tampa FL. Used truck tires are much more affordable and can last almost as long as new tires. So if you can buy them cheap, why go for the more expensive tires?

If you choose to get used truck tires instead of new tires, though, you should know how to choose the best tires within your budget. Cheap tires can actually cost you more in the long run if you don’t know what to look for. You should also be very careful in choosing used truck tires to ensure your safety on the road, as well as the safety of others.

What to Check in Used Truck Tires

Check on the condition of the treads in used truck tires. Treads are the rubber tire parts that come into contact with the road. They have grooves called tread patterns. The used truck tires you choose should not have uneven wear on their treads. If you notice that the used truck tire’s tread is sunken at the center, it means that it had been allowed to run while over inflated. If the used truck tire’s tread is worn on one of its edges, it means that it had been used on a vehicle that was out of alignment. On the other hand, if the used truck tire’s tread is worn on both edges, it means that it had been allowed to run while under inflated. Minimal wear due to over or under inflation can be fixed by running the tires with proper inflation. If you see major wear, though, do not choose those tires.

Also check on the used truck tire’s sidewall, or the rubber part on the outer sides of the tire. Small nicks are acceptable but deep cuts should be cause for rejection. Finally, check the used truck tire’s bead, or the part that fits onto the wheel rim. There should be no damage so that the tire is properly sealed on the wheel rim.

Choosing Retread Tires

Another option in buying cheap tires is to look for retread tires. These are used truck tires that have been re-manufactured. The worn treads have been buffed away and totally replaced.

Retreading is only feasible for truck tires. It is not done for passenger tires because the cost would be even higher than that of new tires. For trucks, though, retread tires are not only much cheaper but could even be more efficient and have more traction over new tires. They could also last longer. Proof of the economy and safety of retread tires would be the fact that many trucking, bussing and aviation companies use these in their large-scale operations.

Aside from the financial savings you incur, using retread tires would also be a good contribution to environmental sustainability. Recycling used tires saves a lot of natural resources, and each tire can be retreaded for a maximum of ten times. The discarded worn rubber is recycled, as well, into rubber mulch used in landscaping, playgrounds, parks and athletic fields.

Retread tires or used tires need the same care as new tires. Make sure you do not over or under inflate them. Use proper air pressure and do not overload them, either.

If you’re interested in looking for used tires or retread tires, there are many dealers in Tampa, FL. Make sure you go to a reputable dealer so that you get not only cheap but dependable tires.

<b>Discount Tire Town</b><br/>
Monty Kaspi<br/>
701 W Hillsborough Ave<br/>
Tampa, FL 33603<br/>
Phone: 813-237-2577<br/>
Email: <a target=”_blank” href=””></a>

Discount Tire Town
Monty Kaspi
701 W Hillsborough Ave
Tampa, FL 33603
Phone: 813-237-2577

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I want to introduct something about HP Pavilion DV8280US 17 Notebook PC. HP Pavilion DV8280US 17 Notebook PC Balance your need for productivity with great multimedia performance with the HP Pavilion dv8280us notebook PC, which features an amazingly bright, widescreen 17-inch BrightView display–perfect for multitasking between document windows and watching movies in their native aspect ratio. And you can easily burn your home video productions to DVD for friends and family with the dual-layer, multi-format DVD/CD burner, which enables you to store up to 8.5 GB of data on a DL disc. Enjoy movies or music in seconds with the external DVD or music buttons to launch HP QuickPlay (which bypasses the boot process). Easily share digital photos with the included HP Image Zone Plus software. It’s powered by Intel’s new, groundbreaking processor–the powerful Core Duo T2400–which provides an optimized, multithreaded architecture for improved gaming and multitasking performance and a more efficient power consumption. The dual execution core T2400 has a 1.83 GHz processor speed and 2 MB L2 cache. Enjoy smooth
(Redirected from Parmesan cheese)

Country of origin
Region, town
Provinces of Parma,Reggio Emilia, Modena,Bologna (west of the Reno),Mantua (north of the Po River)
Source of milk
Aging time
Minimum: 12 monthsVecchio: 1824 monthsStravecchio: 2436 months
Italy: DOC 1955EU: PDO 1992
Parmigiano-Reggiano is a hard, fat granular cheese, cooked but not pressed, named after the producing areas of Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna, in Emilia-Romagna, and Mantova, in Lombardy, Italy.
Parmigiano is simply the Italian adjective for Parma; the French version, Parmesan, is used in the English language. The term Parmesan is also loosely used as a common term for cheeses imitating true Parmesan cheese, especially outside Europe; within Europe, the Parmesan name is classified as a protected designation of origin.

The sign on the border of Parma and Piacenza, indicating the start of the area of origin.
Parmigiano-Reggiano is made from raw cow’s milk. The whole milk of the morning milking is mixed with the naturally skimmed milk (it is left in large shallow tanks to allow the cream to separate) of the previous evening’s milking, resulting in a part skim mixture. The milk is pumped into copper-lined vats (copper heats and cools quickly). Starter whey is added, and the temperature is raised to 33-35C. Calf rennet is added, and the mixture is left to curdle for 10-12 minutes. The curd is then broken up mechanically (spinitura in Italian) into small pieces (around the size of rice grains). The temperature is then raised to 55 with careful control by the cheese-maker. The curd is left to settle for 45-60 minutes. The compacted curd is collected in a piece of muslin before being divided in two and placed in moulds. There are 1100L of milk per vat, producing two cheeses each. The curd making up each wheel at this point weighs around 45kg (100lb). The remaining whey in the vat was traditionally used to feed the pigs from which “Prosciutto di Parma” (cured Parma ham) is produced. The barns for these animals were usually just a few yards away from the cheese production rooms.
The cheese is put into a stainless steel round form that is pulled tight with a spring powered buckle so the cheese retains its wheel shape. After a day or two, the buckle is released and a plastic belt imprinted numerous times with the Parmigiano-Reggiano name, the plant’s number, and month and year of production is put around the cheese and the metal form is buckled tight again. The imprints take hold on the rind of the cheese in about a day and the wheel is then put into a brine bath to absorb salt for 20-25 days. After brining, the wheels are then transferred to the aging rooms in the plant for 12 months. Each cheese is placed on wooden shelves that can be 24 cheeses high by 90 cheeses long or about 4,000 total wheels per aisle. Each cheese and the shelf underneath it is then cleaned manually or robotically every 7 days. The cheese is also turned at this time.

A factory of Parmigiano-Reggiano. There are two storerooms, both with 20 of these shelves.
At 12 months, the Consorzio Parmigiano-Reggiano inspects each and every cheese. The cheese is tested by a master grader whose only instruments are a hammer and his ear. By tapping the wheel at various points, he can identify undesirable cracks and voids within the wheel. Those cheeses that pass the test are then heat branded on the rind with the Consorzio’s logo. Those that don’t pass the test used to have their rinds marked with lines or crosses all the way around to inform consumers that they are not getting top-quality Parmigiano-Reggiano; more recent practices simply have these lesser rinds stripped of all markings.
Traditionally, cows have to be fed only on grass or hay, producing grass fed milk. Only natural whey culture is allowed as a starter, together with calf rennet.
The only additive allowed is salt, which the cheese absorbs while being submerged for 20 days in brine tanks saturated to near total salinity with Mediterranean sea salt. The product is aged an average of two years. The cheese is produced daily, and it can show a natural variability. True Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese has a sharp, complex fruity/nutty taste and a slightly gritty texture. Inferior versions can impart a bitter taste.
The average Parmigiano-Reggiano wheel is about 18-24 cm (7 to 9 inches) high, 40-45 cm (16 to 18 inches) in diameter, and weighs an average of 38 kg (80 pounds).
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Automatic identification and data capture

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(Redirected from AIDC)
“AIDC” redirects here. For the Taiwanese company, see Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation.
Please help improve this article or section by expanding it. Further information might be found on the talk page. (March 2007)
Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) refers to the methods of automatically identifying objects, collecting data about them, and entering that data directly into computer systems (i.e. without human involvement). Technologies typically considered as part of AIDC include bar codes, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), biometrics, magnetic stripes, Optical Character Recognition (OCR), smart cards, and voice recognition. AIDC is also commonly referred to as utomatic Identification, uto-ID, and “Automatic Data Capture.”
AIDC is the process or means of obtaining external data, particularly through analysis of images, sounds or videos. To capture data, a transducer is employed which converts the actual image or a sound into a digital file. The file is then stored and at a later time it can be analyzed by a computer, or compared with other files in a database to verify identity or to provide authorization to enter a secured system. Capturing of data can be done in various ways; the best method depends on application.
AIDC also refers to the methods of recognizing objects, getting information about them and entering that data or feeding it directly into computer systems without any human involvement. Automatic identification and data capture technologies include barcodes, RFID, OCR, magnetic stripes, smart cards and biometrics.
In biometric security systems, capture is the acquisition of or the process of acquiring and identifying characteristics such as finger image, palm image, facial image, iris print or voice print which involves audio data and the rest all involves video data.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is relatively a new AIDC technology which was first developed in 1980. The technology acts as a base in automated data collection, identification and analysis systems worldwide. RFID has found its importance in a wide range of markets including livestock identification and Automated Vehicle Identification (AVI) systems because of its capability to track moving objects. These automated wireless AIDC systems are effective in manufacturing environments where barcode labels could not survive.
1 The Internet of Things and the supply chain of the future Auto-ID initiative
2 See also
3 References
4 External links
The Internet of Things and the supply chain of the future Auto-ID initiative
The idea is as simple as its application is difficult. If all cans, books, shoes or parts of cars are equipped with minuscule identifying devices, daily life on our planet will undergo a transformation. Things like running out of stock or wasted products will no longer exist as we will know exactly what is being consumed on the other side of the globe. Theft will be a thing of the past as we will know where a product is at all times.
The global association Auto-ID Center was founded in 1999 and is made up of 100 of the largest companies in the world such as Wal-Mart, Coca-Cola, Gillette, Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer, Procter & Gamble, Unilever, UPS, companies working in the sector of technology such as SAP, Aliens, Sun as well as five academic research centers. These are based at the following Universities; MIT in the USA, Cambridge University in the UK, the University of Adelaide in Australia, Keio University in Japan and University of St. Gallen in Switzerland.
The Auto-ID Center suggests a concept of a future supply chain that is based on the Internet of objects, i.e. a global application of RFID. They try to harmonize technology, processes and organization. Research is focused on miniaturization (aiming for a size of 0.3 mm/chip), reduction in the price per single device (aiming at around $0.05 per unit), the development of innovative application such as payment without any physical contact (Sony/Philips), domotics (clothes equipped with radio tags and intelligent washing machines) and, last but not least, sporting events (timing at the Berlin marathon).
See also
Auto-ID Labs
Device management
Field Service Management
Mobile Enterprise
Mobile Asset Management
Ubiquitous computing
^ Waldner, Jean-Baptiste (2008). Nanocomputers and Swarm Intelligence. London: ISTE John Wiley & Sons. pp.205214. ISBN 1847040020.
External links
AIM Global
Categories: Automatic identification and data capture | Encodings | Multimodal interaction | Human-computer interaction | Radio-frequency identification
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Strengthening mechanisms of materials

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Methods have been devised to modify the yield strength, ductility, and toughness of both crystalline and amorphous materials. These strengthening mechanisms give engineers the ability to tailor the mechanical properties of materials to suit a variety of different applications. For example, the favorable properties of steel result from interstitial incorporation of carbon into the iron lattice. Brass, a binary alloy of copper and zinc, has superior mechanical properties compared to its constituent metals due to solution strengthening. Work hardening (such as beating a red-hot piece of metal on anvil) has also been used for centuries by blacksmiths to introduce dislocations into materials, increasing their yield strengths.
What is Strengthening?
Plastic deformation occurs when large numbers of dislocations move and multiply so as to result in macroscopic deformation. In other words, it is the movement of dislocations in the material which allows for deformation. If we want to enhance a material’s mechanical properties (i.e. increase the yield and tensile strength), we simply need to introduce a mechanism which prohibits the mobility of these dislocations. Whatever the mechanism may be, (work hardening, grain size reduction, etc) they all hinder dislocation motion and render the material stronger than previously.
The stress required to cause dislocation motion is orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical stress required to shift an entire plane of atoms, so this mode of stress relief is energetically favorable. Hence, the hardness and strength (both yield and tensile) critically depend on the ease with which dislocations move. Pinning points, or locations in the crystal that oppose the motion of dislocations, can be introduced into the lattice to reduce dislocation mobility, thereby increasing mechanical strength. Dislocations may be pinned due to stress field interactions with other dislocations and solute particles, or physical barriers from grain boundaries and second phase precipitates. There are four main strengthening mechanisms for metals, however the key concept to remember about strengthening of metallic materials is that it is all about preventing dislocation motion and propagation; you are making it energetically unfavorable for the dislocation to move or propagate. For a material that has been strengthened, by some processing method, the amount of force required to start irreversible (plastic) deformation is greater than it was for the original material.
In amorphous materials such as polymers, amorphous ceramics (glass), and amorphous metals, the lack of long range order leads to yielding via mechanisms such as brittle fracture, crazing, and shear band formation. In these systems, strengthening mechanisms do not involve dislocations, but rather consist of modifications to the chemical structure and processing of the constituent material.
Unfortunately, strength of materials cannot infinitely increase. Each of the mechanisms elaborated below involves some trade off by which other material properties are compromised in the process of strengthening.
Strengthening Mechanisms in Metals
Work hardening
Main article: Work hardening
The primary species responsible for work hardening are dislocations. Dislocations interact with each other by generating stress fields in the material. The interaction between the stress fields of dislocations can impede dislocation motion by repulsive or attractive interactions. Additionally, if two dislocations cross, dislocation line entanglement occurs, causing the formation of a jog which opposes dislocation motion. These entanglements and jogs act as pinning points, which oppose dislocation motion. As both of these processes are more likely to occur when more dislocations are present, there is a correlation between dislocation density and yield strength,
where G is the shear modulus, b is the Burgers vector, and is the dislocation density.
Increasing the dislocation density increases the yield strength which results in a higher shear stress required to move the dislocations. This process is easily observed while working a material. Theoretically, the strength of a material with no dislocations will be extremely high (?=G/2) because plastic deformation would require the breaking of many bonds simultaneously. However, at moderate dislocation density values of around 107-109 dislocations/m2, the material will exhibit a…(and so on) To get More information , you can visit some products about antique mirror glass, heat reflective glass, . The Flashing Margarita glass, flashing margarita glass, flashing cocktail glass products should be show more here!

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